Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1
In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill only two employees today,” a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”
Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker.

In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job,could earn an average lifestyle ,But ,today ,average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.

Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been a acceleration. As Davidson notes,” In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared.

There will always be changed-new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average.

In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to poet-high school education.

21. The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______
[A] the impact of technological advances
[B] the alleviation of job pressure
[C] the shrinkage of textile mills
[D] the decline of middle-class incomes

22. According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to______
[A] work on cheap software
[B] ask for a moderate salary
[C] adopt an average lifestyle
[D] contribute something unique

23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______
[A] gains of technology have been erased
[B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed
[C] factories are making much less money than before
[D] new jobs and services have been offered

24. According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is_____
[A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution
[B] to ensure more education for people
[C] to advance economic globalization
[D] to pass more bills in the 21st century

25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text?
[A] New Law Takes Effect
[B] Technology Goes Cheap
[C] Average Is Over
[D] Recession Is Bad

Text 2
A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic include settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and 7millin people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.

Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.

Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas .They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them , They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.

With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably.

Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle .Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.

26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____
[A] immigrate across the Atlantic.
[B] leave their home countries for good.
[C] stay in a foreign temporarily.
[D]find permanent jobs overseas.

27 It is implied in paragraph 2 that the current immigration system in the US____
[A] needs new immigrant categories.
[B] has loosened control over immigrants.
[C] should be adopted to meet challenges.
[D]has been fixed via political means.

28 According to the author, today’s birds of passage want___
[A] financial incentives.
[B] a global recognition.
[C] opportunities to get regular jobs.
[D]the freedom to stay and leave.

29 The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated __
[A] as faithful partners.
[B] with economic favors.
[C] with regal tolerance.
[D]as mighty rivals.

30 which is the most title?
[A] come and go: big mistake.
[B] living and thriving : great risk.
[C] with or without : great risk.
[D] legal or illegal: big mistake.

Text 3
Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses.

Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness.

But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing, Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.

Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or hire outside screeners.

John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a muck longer evaluation; two days, not two seconds.

Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: doge can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend.

31. The time needed in making decisions may____.
[A] vary according to the urgency of the situation
[B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction
[C] depend on the importance of the assessment
[D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

32. Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snap decisions____.
[A] can be associative
[B] are not unconscious
[C] can be dangerous
[D] are not impulsive

33. To reverse the negative influences of snap decisions, we should____.
[A] trust our first impression
[B] do as people usually do
[C] think before we act
[D] ask for expert advice

34. John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on____.
[A] critical assessment
[B]‘‘thin sliced ’’study
[C] sensible explanation
[D] adequate information

35. The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is____.
[A] tolerant
[B] uncertain
[C] optimistic
[D] doubtful

Text 4
Europe is not a gender-equality heaven. In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family—friendly until women are part of senior management decisions, and Europe’s top corporate-governance positions remain overwhelmingly male .indeed, women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards.

The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women-up to 60 percent. This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up.

Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate Ladder fairy as they balance work and family?

“Personally, I don’t like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But i like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,” according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions.

I understand Reding’s reluctance-and her frustration. I don’t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. Bur, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered.

After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position— no matter how much “soft pressure ” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power--as, for example, Sheryl Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule.

If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women---whether CEOs or their children’s caregivers--and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society.

36. In the European corporate workplace, generally_____.
[A] women take the lead
[B] men have the final say
[C] corporate governance is overwhelmed
[D] senior management is family-friendly

37. The European Union’s intended legislation is ________.
[A] a reflection of gender balance
[B] a reluctant choice
[C] a response to Reding’s call
[D] a voluntary action

38. According to Reding, quotas may help women ______.
[A] get top business positions
[B] see through the glass ceiling
[C] balance work and family
[D] anticipate legal results

39. The author’s attitude toward Reding’s appeal is one of _________.
[A] skepticism
[B] objectiveness
[C] indifference
[D] approval

40. Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of ______.
[A] more social justice
[B] massive media attention
[C] suitable public policies
[D] greater “soft pressure”

Part B

You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points)

[A] Live like a peasant
[B] Balance your diet
[C] Shopkeepers are your friends
[D] Remember to treat yourself
[E] Stick to what you need
[F] Planning is everything
[G] Waste not, want not

The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has £60 a week to spend, £40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning £130,000 a I year working in corporate communications and eating at London's best restaurants'" at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious. "The community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I'd lost. But it's still a day-by-day thing." Now he's living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. He's feeling positive, but he'll carry on blogging - not about eating as cheaply as you can - "there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food" - but eating well on a budget. Here's his advice for economical foodies.

Impulsive spending isn't an option, so plan your week's menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it's not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It's also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being-human, you'll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy.

This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy. With them,
there's not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little
greengrocer. And if you plan properly, you'll know that you only need, say, 350g
of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is pre-packed in the
supermarket chiller.

You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer - that's not
good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning
ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables you'll do a
vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to "go off' will be cooked or juiced.

Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers,
delis and fish-sellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon
you'll feel comfortable asking if they've any knuckles of ham for soups and stews,
or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than
not, they'll let you have for free.

You won't be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few
months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant - £1.75 a week for three
months gives you £21 - more than" enough for a three-course lunch at
Michelin-starred Arbutus. It's £16.95 there - or £12.99 for a large pizza from
Domino's: I know which I'd rather eat.