The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media – such as television commercials and print advertisements – still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. In fact, the way consumers now approach the process of making purchase decisions means that marketing's impact stems from a broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.
Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media , such marketers act as the initiator for users’ responses. But in some cases, one marketer’s owned media become another marketer’s paid media – for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.
The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them.
If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company’s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg.
31.Consumers may create “earned” media when they are
[A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.
[B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.
[C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.
[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products.
32. According to Paragraph 2,sold media feature
[A] a safe business environment.
[B] random competition.
[C] strong user traffic.
[D] flexibility in organization.
33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media
[A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers.
[B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing.
[C] may be responsible for fiercer competition.
[D] deserve all the negative comments about them.
34. Toyota Motor’s experience is cited as an example of
[A] responding effectively to hijacked media.
[B] persuading customers into boycotting products.
[C] cooperating with supportive consumers.
[D] taking advantage of hijacked media.
35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ?
[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.
[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media.
[C] Dominance of hijacked media.
[D] Popularity of owned media.
It’s no surprise that Jennifer Senior’s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter – nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.”
The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive – and newly single – mom Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual “Jennifer Aniston is pregnant” news. Practically every week features at least one celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstands.
In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing ? It doesn’t seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn’t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.
Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their “own” (read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cake.
It’s hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it’s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren’t in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting “ the Rachel” might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston.
36.Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring
[B]enjoyment in progress
[C]happiness in retrospect
37.We learn from Paragraph 2 that
[A]celebrity moms are a permanent source for gossip.
[B]single mothers with babies deserve greater attention.
[C]news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining.
[D]having children is highly valued by the public.
38.It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks
[A]are constantly exposed to criticism.
[B]are largely ignored by the media.
[C]fail to fulfill their social responsibilities.
[D]are less likely to be satisfied with their life.
39.According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is
40.Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?
[A]Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms.
[B]Celebrity moms have influenced our attitude towards child rearing.
[C]Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life.
[D]We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing.