Section 1 Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.
Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
__7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
__17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share 20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out

1. [标准答案] [C]how
[考点分析] 连词辨析
[选项分析] 根据语境,“新发现表明:快乐可能会影响工作__的稳定。”[A] 为什么 [B] 哪里 [C] 怎样,多么 [D] 当…时候。根据语义分析,C选项填入原文,译为“快乐可能会影响工作是有多么稳定”,C为正确选项。

2. [标准答案] [B]In particular
[考点分析] 上下文语义以及短语辨析
[选项分析] [A] 反过来 [B] 尤其是 [C] 相反 [D] 总的来说 根据前文语境,第二段第一句译为“根据近期的研究,拥有更多快乐的人的公司会投资更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快乐氛围中的公司会做更多的研发以及发展。“第二句是在第一句的基础上进一步强调说明,因此B选项更符合语境要求。

3. [标准答案] [D]necessary
[考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析
[选项分析] [A]充足的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完美的 [D] 必要的 首先,根据本句题干 “That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”译为“因为快乐与对未来投资有______长远考虑相联系。”要求填写形容词, 我们要考虑其搭配与其修饰成分。空格处搭配介词for, 并且修饰“长远考虑”。因此D选项最符合语境要求。

4. [标准答案] [C]optimism
[考点分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析
[选项分析] [A]个人主义 [B] 现代主义 [C] 乐观主义 [D] 现实主义 本题考查同后缀的名词辨析。根据原文主旨,探讨“happy people”与公司的关系。那么,衡量四个选项,只有C选项符合主旨要求。

5. [标准答案] [D]change
[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
[选项分析] [A]发出回声 [B] 想念,错过 [C] 破坏 [D] 改变 根据原文语境,“would 5 the way companies invested.”本题考查动宾搭配,宾语为“公司投资的方式”只有D选项搭配最为合理。

6. [标准答案] [B]measured
[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
[选项分析] [A]想象 [B] 衡量,测量 [C] 发明 [D] 假定,设想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”译为“他们把盖洛普咨询公司所_____的美国城市平均幸福指数与该地区的上市公司投资活跃度进行对比。” 根据原文语境,盖洛普咨询公司所做的应该是一个“既定事实”所以排除ACD。因此,B选项为最佳选项。
7.[标准答案] [A]Sure
[考点分析] 上下文语义及固定搭配
[选项分析] [A]确信的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 不幸运的 [D] 经常的 本题为固定搭配“sure enough” 译为“足以肯定的是,”

8. [标准答案] [D]headquartered
[考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析
[选项分析] [A]广告的 [B] 划分的 [C] 课税过重的 [D]位于总部的 根据原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”译为“足以肯定的是,公司投资与研发力度与公司______的幸福指数相关。”in which 引导表示地点的定语从句,先行词为area.对比四个选项,ABC不足以说明此地点的真实含义。因此,D选项,搭配前文area,构成“总部所在地”最为合理。

9. [标准答案] [A]explain
[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
[选项分析] [A]解释 [B] 夸大 [C] 概述[D]重点强调 根据原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A选项 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配使用。

10. [标准答案] [B]factors
[考点分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析
[选项分析] [A]阶段 [B] 因素 [C] 等级[D]方法 根据原文语境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本题中,破折号后面 “大小,产业,销售”这些都是 “让公司有更多投资的”因素。因此,B选项最符合原文语境。

11.[标准答案] [A] desirable
[考点分析] 上下文语义和形容词
[选项分析] 该空填的是形容词,用来修饰前面的名词place,并且在意义上也是对后面like growth in wages or population的解释,可以看出来应该是填褒义词,并且能修饰place.所以只有[A]desirable合适的 符合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊敬的 [D]reliable 可依靠的。

12. [标准答案] [B]held
[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
[选项分析] 该句算是这一段的总结句,该段整体在描述幸福与投资之间的关系,而这一link就只能得出了,只有[B]held ”得出”符合语境。A resumed “重新开始”,C emerge “浮现”,D broke “破坏”。

13.[标准答案] [A] attribute
[考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系以及动词词组辨析
[选项分析]该空是一个which引导的定语从句的谓语动词所在地,动词的宾语就是前面的主句,强调“幸福与投资之间的关系尤其适用于新公司”这一结论与后面“所做决定会偏草率”之间的关系,能看出是一个因果关系,因此答案选择[A]attribute 与to 搭配表示“归因于……”,而[B]assign to表示“指派”[C]transfer to“转移到”[D]compare to“与……比较”均不符合题意。

14.[标准答案] [D] experienced
[考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析
[选项分析] 此处很简单,前面有一个并列连词and, 与前面的young一致修饰managers,强调新公司的领导年轻并缺乏经验,只有[D]experienced最合适。

15. [标准答案] [C] also
[考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系以及副词词义辨析

16. [标准答案] [D]equally
[考点分析] 上下文语义及副词词义辨析
[选项分析] 这题是考察副词修饰spread, 但是更要注意的是该句“这种关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门,而不是那些不快乐的部门。”中该空与后面的inequality形成复现关系,所以很容易判断出答案选择[D]equally。

17. [标准答案] [C] while
[考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系
[选项分析] 该题是典型的考察上下文逻辑关系的题目,因此着力点应该放在上一段和这一段之间的关系。这一段第一句明确说出“这并不证明是幸福导致公司大量投资……”,所以两句话之间是一个转折关系,选择while.

18. [标准答案] [C]hints
[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
[选项分析] 该题可以看出是考察动词与at的固定搭配,arrive at是“到达,抵达”,jump at是“扑向;欣然接受”hint at是“暗示” strike at是“袭击,攻击”,文章中的at least 和that possibility论证了这是一种可能,只有hint at有这层含义。

19. [标准答案] [A]shape
[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析
[选项分析] 根据上下文应该选一个“影响”未来看法含义的动词,[B]是“再发现”[C]是“使简化,使单纯”[D]是“分享”所以可以均可以排除,A 是“塑造,形成,影响”,所以A项是最佳答案。

20. [标准答案] [B]lean towards
[选项分析] 上下文语义及动词词组词义辨析
[考点分析] 本空考察动词词组,且该词组词义应与and前面意思保持一致,且作用对象为研发。[A]pray for 祈祷 [B]lean towards 倾向 [C]give away 放弃,泄露 [D]send out 放出,给予。只有[B]选项能表达一种递进含义。