考研英语阅读理解模拟训练(十一)

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Rewards and punishments are used in different ways by different communities to maintain social order and preserve cultural values.In all cultures,parents must teach their children to avoid danger and to observe the community‘s moral precepts.Adults also condition each other’s observance of social norms,using methods ranging form mild forms of censure,such as looking away when someone makes an inappropriate remark,to imprisoning or executing individuals for behavior considered deviant or dangerous.The caning of American teenager Michael Fay in Singapore for vandalism in 1994 brought wide media attention to cultural differences in the application of punishment.Faced with increasing violence at home,many Americans endorsed Singapore‘s use of corporal punishment to maintain social order.Was Fay’s punishment effective? Whether he subsequently avoids vandalism is unknown,but the punishment did apparently lead to his avoidance of Singapore—which he left promptly.

The operant techniques societies use to maintain social control vary in part with the dangers and threats that confront them.The Gusii of Kenya,with a history of tribal warfare,face threats not only from outsiders but also from natural forces,including wild animals.Gusii parents tend to rely more on punishment and fear than on rewards in conditioning appropriate social behavior in their children.Caning,food deprivation,and withdrawing shelter and protection are common forms of punishment.

In contrast,the Mixtecans of Juxtlahuaca,Mexico,are a highly cohesive community,with little internal conflict,and social norms that encourage cooperation.Their social patterns appear adaptive,for the Mixtecans are dominated by the nearby Spanish Mexicans,who control the official government and many economic resources in their region.The Mixtecans do not generally impose fines or jail sentences or use physical punishment to deter aggression in either adults or children.Rather,they tend to rely on soothing persuasion.Social ostracism is the most feared punishment,and social ties within the community are very strong,so responses that reinforce these ties are effective in maintaining social order.

In the United States,fear of social ostracism or stigma was once a more powerful force in maintaining control over antisocial behavior,especially in small communities.Today,even imprisonment does not appear to be an adequate deterrent to many forms of crime,especially violent crime.Although one reason is the inconsistent application of punishment,another may be the fact that imprisonment no longer carries the intense stigma it once had,so that prison is no longer as an effective punishment.

1.The best title of this passage would be____.

[A] Crime and Punishment

[B] Reward and Punishment

[C] Social Order

 

2.According to the passage,what is a universal cultural norm in maintaining social order?

[A] Children must be obedient to their parents.

[B] People must publicly complain when someone misbehaves.

[C] People should do their parts to ensure that others comply with social rules.

[D] People should publicly humiliate the wrongdoers.

 

3.What can be inferred from the Michael Fay case?

[A] Many Americans were opposed to the corporal punishment that Michael Fay received in Singapore.

[B] The American media did not pay any attention to cultural differences until 1994.

[C] The caning was effective because Michael Fay subsequently refrained from vandalism.

[D] Michael Fay left Singapore immediately after the caning punishment.

 

4.What would a Gusii mother from Kenya most likely do to punish her children?

[A] To stop giving them pocket money.

[B] To persuade them in a gentle way.

[C] To verbally humiliate them.

[D] To threaten to expel them from the home.

 

5.The word“stigma”(in fourth paragraph)most probably means____.

[A] irony

[B] verbal

[C] persuasion

[D] bad reputation

 

核心词汇

Preserve vt.保护,保持

observe vt.遵守

mild adj.温和的

execute Vt.处死,执行

applicationn.应用

vary vi.变化,不同

confront vt.使面临

warfare,1.战争

tend vi.趋向

shelter n.庇护所

cohesive adj.内聚的

intemal adj.口讲。内部的

region n.区域,地区

physical n.身体的

 

译文

为了维持社会秩序以及保持文化价值,不同的社会会采用不同的方式进行奖惩。在所有的文化中,父母必须教会孩子躲避危险并遵守社会的道德准则。成年人同样会使用不同的方式来调节彼此对社会道德标准的遵守,这些方式从轻微指责——比如当某人言语不得体时对其表示轻蔑——到由于个人不道德的行为或是危险行为而对其进行监禁或者处决。1994年,在新加坡的一个美国少年迈克尔‘费伊由于故意破坏公共财产而遭到鞭刑,实施这一惩罚的文化差异引起了媒体的广泛关注。面对越来越多的家庭暴力,很多美国人对新加坡用体罚来维持社会秩序的做法都表示赞同。对费伊的惩罚有效吗?之后他是否不再故意破坏公共财产?我们不得而知;但是,很明显,这样的惩罚使他很快就离开了新加坡。

社会为了维持其社会秩序所使用的可行方式也会部分地随着它们所面临的危险及损害而改变。肯尼亚的古西人有着很长时间部落战争的历史,古西人所面临的威胁不仅来自于外族,还来自于自然力量包括野生动物的困扰。古西人的父母愿意更多地依赖惩罚及恐吓而不是奖赏来调节他们子女的社会行为。鞭打、禁食及逐出家门都是惩罚的常见形式。

与之相反,墨西哥朱克斯拉华卡的密克斯特坎人则组成了一个高度团结的社会,很少发生内鄙冲突,那里的社会准则就是鼓励人与人之间的合作。密克斯特坎人的社会模式看起来很具有适应因为他们被附近的西班牙裔墨西哥人所统治,西班牙裔墨西哥人控制了当地的官方政府及很多经济资源。通常情况下,密克斯特坎人并不采用罚款和判刑或是用体罚的方式来避免成年人和孩子的犯罪。相反,他们更愿意用安抚劝说的方式。社会排挤是最让人害怕的惩罚,社区内的社会联系十分密切,因此,用于加强这些联系的响应在维护社会秩序时显得十分有效。

在美国,特别是在一些小社区中,对社会排挤或是羞辱的恐惧对于控制反社会行为来说曾经是比较强大的力量。现在,甚至监禁看起来都不足以制止很多形式的犯罪,特别是暴力犯罪。虽然一个原因是由于实行惩罚的不一致性,但另一个原因很可能是由于监禁不再像以前那样具有羞辱的威力,因此,监狱已经不再是一种有效的惩罚方式了。

答案解析

1.B 主旨题。文章第一段的主题句提供了解题的线索:为了维持社会秩序以及保持文化价值,不同的社会采用不同的方式进行奖惩。且下文中作者所举的例子都是围绕这一主题进行的。由此可知,文章的中心为“不同的文化中有不同的奖励和惩罚措施”,故选B.

2.C 推断题。由题干关键词maintaining social order定位文章第一段,该段提到:在所有的文化中,父母必须教会孩子躲避危险并遵守社会的道德准则。此外,成人之间也用不同的方式相 互监督彼此是否遵守社会准则。由此推知C正确。

3.D 推断题。由题干关键词Michael Fay定位文章第一段。原文提到,1994年美国少年迈克尔。费伊由于故意破坏公共财产而在新加坡遭到鞭刑的案例引起了人们的广泛关注,许多美国人对新加坡实行体罚来维持社会秩序的做法是认可的,由此可排除A;B说美国媒体直到1994年才开始广泛关注文化差异,在文中并没有依据,排除;原文说之后他是否不再故意破坏公共财产,我们不得而知,可排除C;只有D正确,即费伊很快离开了新加坡。

4.D 细节题。由题干关键词Gusii和Kenya定位文章第二段的Gusii parents tend to rely more 0n punishment…withdrawing shelter,该部分提到:古西人的父母愿意更多地依赖惩罚及恐吓而不是奖赏来调节他们子女的社会行为。鞭打、禁食、逐出家门都是惩罚的常见形式。结合选项可知D最符合题意。

5.D 语义题。由题干关键词stigma定位文章最后一段,该段讲的是美国社会的奖惩制度。作者说在美国,特别是一些小社区中,对社会排挤或是——的恐惧曾经能很好地控制反社会行为。而现在监禁都不再是一种有效的措施了。由此推断,stigma的意思应该与ostracism(排斥)相 似,比imprisomem(监禁)的含义在程度上要轻,结合选项可推知,stigma应是“坏名声、侮辱”的意思,故选D.

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阅读占据着考研英语的40分的分值,是很多人能否达到院校对研究生入学资格要求的关键。从暑假结束到9月份,我们需要集中精力去战胜这一道难关,适当的时候辅以一些模拟题提高我们的阅读水平。 http://i1.w.hjfile.cn/topic/kaoyanyizu8572.jpg
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